In all authoritarian systems (including previous Eastern Bloc) secret service was a key tool to maintain their grip on power. In military regime countries, secret service underwent direct military control. In communist systems, intelligence and counterintelligence was a mixture of military and civil services. The restitution of an appropriate role of secret service was one of the priority tasks which the authorities of the countries that chose a democratic way in 1989 had to complete. Among those countries was Poland, which was one of the countries where, it has to be admitted, the reform of civil secret service took place relatively late, while compared to political changes. That is why the main aim for this research paper is to present the reasons for such a situation, as well as the circumstances, which accompanied forming new services, that is the Office of State Protection.